- Present focus in ecology and biodiversity scientific researches is to alert policy makers, and public that global biodiversity is declining at an alarming scale. It is true that despite all efforts our understanding of this decline is still limited. Climate change research has taken more attention, more investment will be going in this direction -not realising loss of biodiversity is the crucial link which is bringing this global climate change. In my personal analysis lot of research and investment is needed at plant biodiversity level. Dr.Mrs.Promila Kapoor-Vijay FLS; @kapoorvijayp,;@probio3
- Global effects of land use on biodiversity paper by Tim Newbould et al. ,gives very interesting information and useful projection suggesting that human land use has caused substantial declines in species richness. The multi authored paper (Functional Ecology (2020,January) points clearly that our “understanding of nature and drivers of biodiversity decline remains incomplete” and further .. evidence from different taxonomic groups and geographic regions suggests that land use does not equally impact all organisms within terrestrial ecological communities, and that different functional groups of species may respond differently. In particular, large carnivores are expected to decline more compared to other animals due to land use disturbance”.
- This paper is first “global synthesis of responses to land use across functional groups using data from a wide set of animal species, including herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, fungivores and detritivores; and ranging in body mass from 2 × 10−6 g (an oribatid mite) to 3,825 kg (the African elephant)”.and authors have shown”that the abundance of large endotherms, small ectotherms, carnivores and fungivores (although in the last case, not significantly) are reduced disproportionately in human land uses compared with the abundance of other functional groups”, further suggesting that certain functional groups are consistently favoured over others in land used by humans.(https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13500).
The Editor’s Choice article forVolume 107 Issue 6is a study by Quintana‐Ascencioet al., which looks at therole of seed dormancy, dispersal and fire history on plant population dynamics, distribution and abundance. Associate Editor, Shurong Zhou, discusses this new research paper in more detail.
Biodiversity conservation and management depend on our understanding of population dynamics at multiple scales. However, most population models consider only small spatial scales. The predicted patterns of distribution and abundance may not scale up to a larger, regional scales – where environmental or anthropogenic changes are usually involved (Beissinger & Westphal 1998). So, predicting regional population distribution and viability may be critically important when dealing with large scale changes in population dynamics, for conversation and management. However, possibly due to difficulties in collecting long-term and large-scale demographic data, many studies chose to ignore the underlying landscape issue or treat it in a simplistic manner.
View original post 405 more words
Journal of Ecology published a Special Feature in issue 105.1 titled; Dispersal Processes driving plant movement: Range shifts in a changing world. One of the guest editors, Cristina García, tells us more about the Special Feature below…
Most living organisms need to mobilise their propagules to avoid inter-specific competition, escape suboptimal or poor local conditions and colonise suitably remote sites. Dispersal is particularly challenging for sessile organisms, such as plants that typically get dispersed across the landscape by disseminating their seeds. Dispersal has long fascinated ecologists and distinguished naturalists, such as Darwin and Wallace, who have invoked dispersal and migration processes to explain biogeographic patterns.
In an increasingly managed and fragmented world, constrained plant dispersal ability limits the chances of plant populations to persist and expand. We already have empirical evidence on the important role that local adaptation plays in organisms to cope with climate change, either through…
View original post 594 more words
Many of you have heard of the famous peppered moth Biston betularia, a paradigmatic case of evolution by natural selection. (The normally inconspicuous white, speckled moth evolved a cryptic black coloration when smog blackened tree trunks in industrial England; and the same thing happened in the United States. When anti-pollution laws were enacted in both […]
Aichi Biodiversity Targets Reflection in 2018 shows we are very far from achieving the goals. People are still not aware of values of biodiversity, values of biodiversity still need to be integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies……science, technology, mobilisation of all resources…not yet possible. I outline here the Aichi Biodiversity targets and hope to get succinct responses.
-Five strategic goals have been given, which are:
(A) Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
(B) Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
(C) To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
(D) Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
(E) Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building.
The goals have to be met by 2020 ( in the next two years). On reflection I thought we again look at these goals:
Strategic Goal Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.
By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.
By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.
Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.
By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.
By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.
By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.
Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.
By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.
Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.
By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.
By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.
Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.
By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.
By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.
By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.
Light dependent properties of five Native Mangrove species(c)by Promila Kapoor-Vijay
A brief note
Promila Kapoor-Vijay(ID name Promila Kapoor)
There are about 80 species of true mangrove trees worldwide, mangrove ecosystems comprise a relatively low number of habitat-forming tree species, are rich with a high diversity of decomposer, detritivorous and consumer species. Although the overall level of diversity in mangrove ecosystems is low relative to those of other key tropical habitats such as coral reefs and tropical rainforestss, these species collectively support many important ecosystem services (Lee et al.,(2017).
The key feature of Mangrove study relates to the adaptive capacity of five mangrove tree species and their response to strong light. The study by Kitao et al, describes and reports an examination of photosynthesis specifically the light-dependent properties of five mangrove native tree species which are: Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Xylocarpus granatum)”.
1.Mangrove Ecosystems: A Global Biogeographic Perspective.Rivera-Monroy V.H. et al. (2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62206-4_3
2. Light-dependent photosynthetic characteristics indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence in five mangrove species native to Pohnpei Island, Micronesia